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الموضوع: The evolution of international criminal tribunals

  1. #1
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    تاريخ التسجيل
    Nov 2008
    المشاركات
    75

    تعجب The evolution of international criminal tribunals

    The creation and evolution of international criminal tribunals

    The burgeoning of international criminal tribunals started in the late fifteenth century. The case of Peter Von Hagenbach dates from 1474 and relates to whether, within the specific context of international criminal law, superior orders afford a defence to criminal conduct. Von Hagenbach was a knight, a military commander and land guardian of Breisach, a town on the Rhine. He was tried by a tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire of committing atrocities during the occupation of this town. His defence was that he was complying with orders from the Duke of Burgundy to whom Breisach had been given by the Holy Roman Emperor. His defence was rejected and he was convicted and beheaded. The Von Hagenbach case, considered the first case of superior responsibility, is seen as the predecessor of modern war crime trials .

    In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia and consequent treaties ended the Thirty Years War in the Holy Roman Empire and the Eighty Years War between Spain and the Dutch Republic.7 From then, until broken by the 1945 London Agreement by which the Allied States signed the Nuremberg Charter establishing the International Military Tribunal,8 states held a „monopoly over jurisdiction concerning international crimes, which could be dealt with only under their domestic law. Until then military leaders and high-ranking politicians had escaped liability for such crimes. Nuremberg was a watershed in resolving the acute tension between the sovereign independence of each of the 193 nation states, still of fundamental importance and the highest value in maintaining world order, and claims to bring to justice the worlds major criminals. Under its statute, crimes against peace and crimes against humanity were prosecuted .

    2002 saw also the commencement of the International Criminal Court, which is the first permanent court. Established in 1998 by the Statute of Rome, in 2010 the ICC saw its first review conference, which took place in Kampala, defining the crime of aggression .

    All these tribunals are mandated to try perpetrators of international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide
    and aggression (ICC and Nuremberg). The STL‟s mandate on the other hand applies to terrorism and other crimes under the domestic criminal law of Lebanon such as homicide, conspiracy, etc

    David Baragwanath *

  2. #2
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Mar 2012
    المشاركات
    17
    لا اله الا انت سبحانك انى كنت من الظالمين

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المواضيع المتشابهه

  1. International Criminal Court, Rules of Procedure and Evidence
    بواسطة د/سالي جمعة في المنتدى Public International Law
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    آخر مشاركة: 09-02-2011, 12:43 AM
  2. International Criminal Court, Elements of Crimes
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    آخر مشاركة: 09-02-2011, 12:29 AM
  3. Rome statute of the international criminal court
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    آخر مشاركة: 05-02-2011, 04:21 AM
  4. The International Criminal Court (ICC)
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    آخر مشاركة: 17-06-2010, 06:58 PM
  5. Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC)
    بواسطة د/سالي جمعة في المنتدى Criminal Law
    مشاركات: 0
    آخر مشاركة: 17-06-2010, 06:14 PM

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