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: Privacy & Data Protection

  1. #1
    Jan 2006
    7,816

    Privacy & Data Protection



    Privacy & Data Protection


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    4-5 G8

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    6. .

    6-1 ( )

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    7 ) .

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    7-3 .









    - Privacy

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    - ɿ

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    1 . - (1)





    . (2) .



    1361 ( The Justices of the Peace Act ) . 1765 Camden (3) .



    1776 . 1858 1889 .



    1890 Samual Warren and Louis Brandeis .

    (4) 1948 .

    ( ICCPR ) .

    ( 1950 ) (5) 1976 ( ) . .

    .

    11 .

    1965 .

    1970 ( LAND OF HESSE IN GERMANY ) ( ) 1973 1974 1977 1978 .

    1981 COLLECTION STORAGE PROESSING DISSEMINATION.

    :-

    1 - .

    2 -

    3 - .

    4 - .

    5 -

    6 - .

    7 -

    30 .



    :-



    1 2002 1992 . the Electronic Privacy Information Center 1998 - 2000 :- http://www.privacyinternational.org/

    2 ( )) 27 (( )) 12 .

    3 WILLIAM PITT " . 8 The 2000 Privacy Report , the Electronic Privacy Information Center.

    4 12 (( ))

    5 ( 1- . 2- ) .





    2 .



    2-1 :-

    . (1) .

    . .

    1890 LOUIS BRANDEIS . .

    ( Privacy and Freedom ) 1967 Alan Westin . Edward Bloustein Gavison Ruth :- Secrecy Solitude Anonymity CALCUTT ( ) (2) .

    :-

    : ( Lavie Privee) ( Privacy ) " " (3) .

    : " (4) .

    : (5) - - " " - ( Kayser P. ) - (6) " " (7) "



    2-2 ( ).

    :-

    1- Information Privacy Data Protiction .



    2- Bodily Privacy : GENETIC TESTS DRUG TESTING .



    3- Telecomunication Privacy .



    4- ( ) .



    :-



    1 ( I.F Westin ) : - " " : ( ) ɡ ϡ 1991. 136 ) . : -" " . ǡ ɡ ɡ 25-28 / 1993. 170 . 1967 : - " " ϡ 13)

    2 2000 - .

    3 . 14 . :- " " . 177 .

    4 . :- " " . 13 .

    5 . :- " physical privacy : - - Informational Privacy . 176-178 .

    6 177.

    7 178.


  2. #2
    Jan 2006
    7,816

    3






    " " (1) .

    () ɡ .

    . :-

    :- .

    :- . .

    :- .

    :- ( ).

    - - . .

    (Data Bank Les Banques de Donness ) .

    " ( ) " " "(2).

    . - - .

    . . - (3) - .

    Robert M.Bowie :- " " ***** " (4) .

    - :-

    : " .. " (5) . 1990 4 (17) (IRS) ( 100 ) - - .

    : ( ) . " " (6) 1993 2000 ( ) (7) .

    : . (OTA) 1981 () ( FBI- ) (OTA) .

    : " :- ( Centre Nerveax ) "(8) .

    :- - - ( ) .

    - - . - - . 1989 . 96-97 (9) . 1986 IBM RACF 1994 . ( - cookies ) . ( ( ) ) ( ) .

    ELETRONIC SURVEILLAN .

    - - ( ) . - - .





    :-



    1 - 420 .

    2 48.

    3 :- - - . ( GE 89-15564 1990.

    4 141 .

    5 180.

    6 1984 ( NEA ) () ( BT ) 1986

    7 2-6-3

    8 180.

    9 :- ulrich sieber 1994 423 Computer-related crime .

    10




  3. #3
    Jan 2006
    7,816



    4 .



    .



    4-1 : Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development - OECD - 29 (1) 2000 (2) .

    1978 (3) 1980 :-

    Collection-limitation Data quality Purpose-specification Use-limitation Security-Safeguards Openness Individual Participation and Accountability .

    .



    4-2 Council of Europe :-

    1950 - - .

    1981 ( Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data ) 31 21 31/1/2000 1/10/1985 (4).

    :- ( ) (5) .

    ( ) (6) .



    4-3 European Union (7)

    1976 :- 8/4/76 The protection of the individual against the technical evolution of informatics 8/5/79 The protection of the rights of the individual in the face of technical developments in data processing 9/3/82 .

    29/7/81 1985 . ( ) 1995 (8) 1997 (9) .







    4-4 United Nation :- (10)

    1989 14/12/90 (11) .





    4-5 ( G8 )

    1995 (12).



    4-6 World Trade Organization- WTO(13)



    (14).



    :-



    1 .

    2 :- www.oecd.org

    3 OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data 1980 .

    4 :- Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Portugal Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom . :- Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia Latvia Lithuania Moldova Poland Romania Turkey .

    5 :-

    Social justification, collection-limitation, information-quality, purpose-specification, limitation of disclosure, security-safeguards, openness, time limitation, accountability, and participation by individuals.

    6 ( 1 ) :-

    Recommendation No. R 81/ 1 on Regulations for Automated Medical DataBases of 23 January 1981; Recommendation No. R (83) 3 on the Protection of Users of Computerised Legal Information Services of 22 February 1983; Recommendation No. R (83) 10 on the Protection of Personal Data Used for Scientific Research and Statistics of 23 September 1983; Recommendation No. R (85) 20 on the Protection of Personal Data Used for the Purposes of Direct Marketing of 25 October 1985; Recommendation No. R (86) 1 on the Protection of Personal Data Used for Social Security Purposes of 23 January 1986; Recommendation No. R (87) 15 on the Use of Personal Data in the Police Sector of 17 September 1987; Recommendation No. R (89) 2 on the Protection of Personal Data Used for Employment Purposes of 18 January 1989; Recommendation No. R (95) 4 on the Protection of Personal Data in the area of Telecommunication Services, with particular reference to Telephone Services of 7 February 1995. Council of Europe, Data Protection in the Banking Sector, Working Party No. R (10), Report of the 1st meeting, Doc. No. CJ-PD-GT 10 (87) 3 of 1 July 1987.

    7 2000 :- . :- http://europa.eu.int/abc-en.htm

    8 European Union, Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 :- http://www2.echo.lu/legal/en/datapor...directive.html

    9 The Telecommunications Data Protection Directive

    10 :- Ulrich Sieber - legal Aspects .

    11 United Nations, GUIDELINES CONCERNING COMPUTERIZED PERSONAL DATA FILES. Adopted by the General Assembly on 14 December 1990:-

    12 http://www.datenschutz-berlin.de/ges...ternat/aen.htm , http://www.un.org

    :- www.g7.utoronto.ca .

    13 1995 1994 1947 . .

    14 :- www.wto.org www.gatt.org




  4. #4
    Jan 2006
    7,816



    5 ( )



    5-1 :-



    : -

    1 - COMPREHENSIVE LAWS : . . CO-REGULATORY MODEL .

    2 - SECTORAL LAWS : . . .

    3 - SELF - REGULATION . ѡ .

    .

    . .

    ( ) . .



    5-2 :-



    : -

    1 - .

    2 - .

    3- .



    5-3



    1995 1997 .

    .

    1995 1997 98 2000 .

    : -

    1 -

    2 -

    3 -

    4 - .

    1995 ( - ) .

    .

    1997 ɡ . 2000 1997 . .

    (SPAM ) ( ) .

    .



    5-4 .



    . ( ) ( ) . (1) .

    50 ( Data Protection ) 20 :- - - .

    . ( ) . .

    . .

    . (2) . .

    Prosser - 1977 .

    ( ) :-

    1- ( )

    2- .

    3- .

    4- (3) .

    1974 1984 . 1984 . 1986 ( 1977) (ID) . .

    . ( ) - - .

    :-

    :- .

    :- .

    :- .





    :-



    1 :- http://www.uni-wuerzburg.de/law/index.html :- www.internationalprivacy.org .

    2 - - . " " . . :- 22 .

    3 . 23 .








  5. #5
    Jan 2006
    7,816







    6. Data Protection or Privacy



    6-1 :-

    ( )

    Privacy Data Protection laws .

    .


    ( Collecting ) ( Storing) ( Transmitting data ) .


    .


    1968 ( ) . .


    ( ) ( ) ( ) .


    ( ).


    .





    6-2



    :- 2000 ɡ ( ) .






    1- 289 11/5/1973 1979 1982 1986 1990 1992 .

    1- The Data Protection Act 1973

    2- 1998 1

    2- The Personal Data Act of 1998

    3- 2 3 1988.

    3- Chapter 2 Article3 para.2 of Constitution as amended 1988

    Sweden 1973
    1.

    1- 1974

    5 U.S.C &552 a 1974The Privacy Act
    2- 1986

    The Electronic Communication Privacy Act 1986 ( 18 U.S.C.&3127 , 3121, 3117, 2711, 2702, 2522, 2510, 22332,1367

    3- 1997 .

    The consumer Internet privacy act of 1997

    4- 1997 .

    Social security online privacy protection act of 1997

    5- 1997.

    The communication privacy and consumer empowerment act 1997

    6- 1997 .

    The data privacy act of 1997.




    U S A


    1974
    2.

    1- 27/1/1977 20/12/1990 1994

    The Data Protection Act (1977) (1990)

    2- 2000 1995
    Germany
    1977
    3.

    1- 18/10/1978 314 81 228 1982 370 1986 605 1987 233 1988 609 1989 91 1993 79 1994 632 1994

    The Federal Data Protection Act 1978

    2- 2000 .

    Data protection bill (Datenschutzgesetz 2000
    Austria
    1978
    4.

    1- 293 8/6/1978 1/4/1988

    ( The Private Registers Act ) .

    2- 8/6/1978 1/4/1988 .

    ( The Public Authorities Registers Act )

    3- 2000

    The act on processing of personal data

    4- 72 1953 0 )


    Denmark

    5.

    17-78 6/1/1978 1988, 1992, 1994, 1999, 2000

    The Act on Data Processing, Data Files and Individual Liberties No. 17-78 (1978)


    France

    6.

    1- 48 9/6/1978 55 12/6/1987 66 20/7/1991 78 11/6/1993

    The Law on Personal Data Registers of 1978

    2- 2000 .

    The Personal Data Registers Act of 2000


    Norway

    7.

    1 ( ) 31/3/1979 .

    The Act Organizing the Identification on Physical and Legal Persons by Number

    2- 31/3/1979 .

    The Act Regulating The Use of Nominal Data in Electronic Data Processing
    3 11/8/1982

    the Protection of Privacy The Act concerning


    Luxembourg
    1979
    8.

    1- 1979 9/3/1982 .

    The Freedom of information Act 1982

    2- 1988 1989 1990 1997.

    1988 The Privacy Act

    3- 2000

    The Privacy Amendment (Private Sector) Bill 2000
    Australia

    9.

    1- - 31 / 1979

    2- 8/12/1992 1998 2000 .

    The law for the Protection of the Private life with Respect to the Treatment of Personal Data 1992

    2- 22 1994

    Article 22 was added to the Belgian Constitution in 1994.




    Belgium

    10.

    1- 1979 1981 39/1981 1984 1989 121 1989.

    Act on the Registration and Handling on Personal Data, No. 121, 28 December 1989

    2- 77 2000

    Act on Protection of Individuals with regard to the Processing of Personal Data No. 77/2000

    3- 72 .

    Section 72 of the Constitution


    Iceland

    11.

    1981/5741 23/1/1981 1985 1996 .

    The Protection of Privacy law
    ( )

    Israel 1981
    12.

    1- 28/6/1982 1983 .

    the Privacy Act 1982

    2- 82 83

    The Access to Information Act 1982

    3- 2000

    The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act in April 2000


    Canada
    1982
    13.

    1983 1995 .

    The Act on Collection, Elaboration and Use of computerized personal data was enacted in 1983 and amended in 1995


    Republic of San Marino
    1983
    14.

    1- 1984 1996

    The Data Protection Act 1984
    2- 1998 ( )

    The Human Rights Act

    3- 1998 1984

    The Data Protection Act (1998)

    4- 2000 .


    United Kingdom
    1984
    15.

    1- 1984

    The Informatics Law of 1984, Law No. 7.232, October 29, 1984.

    2- 61 1996 .

    The privacy of personal data - Federal Senate Bill No. 61, 1996


    Brazil
    16.

    1- 471 30/4/1987

    The Personal Data File Act 1987

    2- 4/2/1987

    Personal Registers Act 1987

    3- 38 1995

    Chapter 38 of the Penal Code ( as amended 1995 )


    Finland
    1987
    17.

    3 1987 .

    Article III of the 1987 Constitution




    Republic of the Philippines

    18.

    25/1988 6/7/1988

    Data Protection Act 1988


    Ireland
    1988
    19.

    95 16/12/1988

    The Personal Information Protection Act No.95 of 1988.


    Japan

    20.

    1- 28/12/1988 .

    the Law on the Protection of Privacy in Connection with Personal Registration of 1988 .

    2- 10

    Article 10 of the Constitution

    3- 2000

    The Personal Data Protection Act of 2000


    Netherlands
    21.

    1- 37 38 .

    Article 37 and 38 of the 1991 Constitution

    2- 1999 1990 .

    Personal Data Protection law went into effect in August 1999. The new law replaces the 1990 act


    Republic of Slovenia


    1990
    22.

    37 1990


    Croatia

    23.

    1- 10/91 29/4/1991 28/94 29/8/1994 .

    The Protection of Personal Data with Respect to Informatics Act 1991

    3- 1998 .

    The 1998 Act on the Protection of Personal Data.

    3- 35 1997

    Article 35 of the Constitution


    Portugal 1991
    24.

    1 - 1992

    Act on the Protection of Personal Data in Information Systems, April 1992.

    2- 2000 .

    Personal Data Protection went into effect on June 1, 2000

    3- 7 10 13 1992

    Czech Republic 1992
    25.

    1- 18 4

    Art.18 para.4 of the Constitution

    2- 5/1992 ( ) 29/10/1992 . 1999 .

    Law 1992\5 for the Regulation of the Automated Processing of Personal Data ( LORTAD) of 1992, and amended in December 1999.

    3- 197 ( 10/1995 23/11/1995 )

    Article 197 Criminal Code (law No. 1995\10 of 1995)


    Spain
    26.

    1976 19/6/1992

    Federal Data Protection Act of 1992


    Switzerland

    27.

    1- 1992 .

    Act No. LXIII of 1992 on the Protection of Personal Data and Disclosure of Data of Public Interest

    2- 59 .

    Article 59 of the Constitution


    Hungary



    28.

    1- 16 1992 .

    Article 16 of the 1992 Constitution

    2- 1998 1992 .

    The Act on Protection of Personal Data in Information Systems was approved in February 1998 and went into effect in March 1998. The Act replaces the previous 1992 Czechoslovakian legislation


    Slovak Republic



    29.

    1992
    Romania

    30.

    1976 .

    1993 1993 1994 .

    the Privacy Act 1993

    21 1990


    New Zealand
    1993
    31.

    1- 2 1993 .

    Article 2 of the 1993 Constitution

    2- 1999

    A Data Protection Bill , 1999


    Republic of Peru

    32.

    ( ) 23/12/1993.

    Act concerning the processing of nominal information
    Monaco

    33.

    1- 1994 .

    The Act on the Protection of Personal Information Managed by Public Agencies of 1994

    2- 1996 1998

    The freedom of information act. It was enacted in 1996 and went into effect in 1998.

    3- 16-18 .

    Article 16 - 18 of the Constitution


    South Korea


    1994
    34.

    1994
    Macedonia

    35.

    1- 1995 .

    Information Protection law January 1995

    2- 23 .

    Article 23 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation


    Russian Federation


    1995
    36.

    32 1995

    Constitution Art 32 /1995
    Azerbaijan

    37.

    20 1995

    Art 20 of 1995 Constitution
    Armenia

    38.

    41 1995

    Constitution of 1995 / Art 41
    Georgia

    39.

    1995 Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance, 1995 1999 2000 .


    Hong Kong

    40.

    11/8/1995 .

    Computer-Processed Personal Data Protection Law
    Taiwan

    41.

    1- 1996 .

    the Personal Data Protection Act in June 1996

    2- 42-44 1992 .

    1992 Constitution / Art 42

    3- 1997

    The Databases Act


    Estonia
    1996
    42.

    1- 1996 1998

    Law on Legal Protection of Personal Data in 1996 and amended it in March 1998

    2- 22

    Article 22 of the Constitution .


    Republic of Lithuania

    43.

    23 1996


    Bosnia and Herzegowina

    44.

    1- 32 1988.

    Article 32 of the Bulgarian Constitution of 1991.

    2- 1996 1996 2000.

    The Law for Access to Information to provide access to government records was enacted in June 2000 and went into force in July


    Bulgaria

    45.

    1996 675 31/12/1996 8/1/1997 .

    31/12/1996 Law No. 657 of


    Italy

    46.

    31 32 1996

    2001 .
    Ukraine

    47.

    2472 1997

    Data Protection Act 1997


    Greece
    1997
    48.

    1- 1997 1998 .

    The Law on the Protection of Personal Data Protection was approved in October 1997 and took effect in April 1998

    2- 47 51 .

    Article 47 and 51 of the Polish Constitution.


    Republic of Poland

    49.

    1997

    40 1993 ()


    China

    50.

    1998

    The Communications and Multimedia Act, 1998


    Malaysia
    1998
    51.

    1998 .

    Data protection in the public sector act / 1998
    Thailand

    52.

    1998
    Singapore

    53.

    1- 1999

    The Act No. 19628, titled Law for the protection of Private Life, came into force on October 28, 1999.

    2- 19 1980 .


    Chile
    1999
    54.

    1- 8517 22/7/1999 .

    Law n8517on the protection of personal information 22/07/99

    2- 53 1998 .

    Constitution-21/10/98 of 1998 Art 35
    Albania

    55.

    1- 181943 1994

    Articles 18 , 19 and 43 of the Argentine Constitution (1994)

    2- 2000

    the Protection of Personal Data Act 2000


    Argentine
    2000
    56.

    2000
    Mexico
    57.

    1-

    National Policy on Information Security, Privacy and Data Protection Act for handling of computerized data.

    2- 2000 .

    Technology Act , 2000

    India
    58.

    1- 2000 .

    The Law on Personal Data Protection on March 23, 2000.

    2- 17 .

    Article 17 of the Constitutional Law

    Republic of Latvia


    59.

    1- 2000

    The Access to Information Act , February 2000

    2- 1996 .

    Section 14 of the South African Constitution of 1996



    Republic of South Africa


    60.

    2000
    Liechtenstein
    2000/2001
    61.

    2000
    Turkey

    62.


    Cyprus

    63.

    2001
    Malta

    64.


    Moldova

    65.









    7 ( )



    7-1 - .



    ( ) 2002 . ( 1 ) .



    :-

    1- .

    2- .

    3- ( ) .

    4- .

    5- .



    7-2 :-





    ( ):-

    - The E-Privacy Imperative: Protect Your Customers Internet Privacy and Ensure Your Companys Survival in the Electronic Age, by Mark S. Merkow, James Breithaupt, 2001.

    - Saving Privacy in the Digital Age, by Steven Levy, 2001.

    - Compilation of State and Federal Privacy Laws, by Robert Ellis Smith, 2000.

    - Cyberwars: Espionage on the Internet, by Jean Guisnel, Gui Masai, Winn Schwartau, 1st edition, Perseus Pr, 1997.

    - Data Transmission and Privacy, by Dennis Campbell, Joy Fisher, 1st edition, Kluwer Law International, 1994.

    - The Right to Privacy, by Ellen Alderman, Caroline Kennedy, 1997.

    - Confidential Information Sources: Public and Private, by John M. Carroll ,1991.

    - Confidentiality and Privacy in Social Work: A Guide to the Law for Practitioners and Students, by Donald T. Dickson, 1998.

    .



    7-3 .



    . :-







    - ARGE DATEN - Austrian Society for Privacy and Data ProtectionPRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT=" {http://www.adis.at }(Austria) (contents in English)

    - Center for Democracy and Technology { www.cdt.org }
    Development of legal policy and advocacy in the areas of free speech data privacy wiretapping cryptography internet access etc

    - Commission for Liberties and Informatics [PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.ati.es ]
    Spanish advocacy organization (in English and Spanish)

    - Cyber-Rights & Cyber-Liberties (UK) ] www.leeds.ac.uk [
    UK civil liberties organization

    - Electronic Frontier Canada (EFC)

    [PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://insight.mcmaster.ca/org/efc/efc.html ]
    Canadian privacy materials in English and French

    - The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) { www.eff.org } (USA)

    - Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) [PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.epic.org Washington

    - EPIC "INTERNET PRIVACY" page

    [PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.epic.org/privacy/internet/ ]
    The key resource for US privacy issues concerning the internet

    - Global Internet Liberty Campaign (GILC) [PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.gilc.org/ ]

    - Internet Privacy Coalition [ PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.crypto.org/ ]
    promotes protection of privacy through use of cryptography and relaxation of cryptography controls.

    - Italian Data Protection Commission [ PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.garanteprivacy.it/]
    (in English and Italian)

    - Korean NGO Task Force against Electronic National ID Card

    [PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://kpd.sing-kr.org/ ] (in English)

    - Privacy in Belgium - a Resource Guide

    [PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.datatestlab.com/Privacy/privacy.htm ]

    - Privacy International [PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.privacy.org ] (London/Washington)

    - Privacy Rights Clearinghouse [PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.privacyrights.org/ ] USA

    - Www.privacy.it PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT=" { http://www.privacy.it/ ]
    major site with legislation in Italian (Polytecna)

    - BBBOnline { www.bbbonline.com } operates a Privacy Program which issues Privacy Seals (Council of Better Business Bureaus Inc.

    - Privacy Council [ PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.privacycouncil.com ]
    US consultancy organization with extensive links to other organizations and resources including the OECD Privacy Generator.

    - TRUSTe [PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.truste.org ]
    issues TRUSTe "trust marks" to member companies that meet its privacy standards

    - Europ :- http://europa.eu.int/comm/internal_m...dataprot/index.

    - OECD- http://www.oecd.org/dsti/sti/it/secur/ }

    - American Civil Liberties Union. www.aclu.org

    - Center for Media Education. www.cme.org

    - Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility www.cpsr.org

    - Consumer Project on Technology . www.cptech.org

    - Cypherpunks. www.csua.berkeley.edu

    - EF-Texas www.eftexas.org

    - Global Internet Liberty Campaign www.gilc.org

    - Internet Privacy Coalition. www.crypto.org

    - Privacy International http://www.privacyinternational.org

    - US Public Interest Group (PIRG). www.pirg.org

    - www.KidsPrivacy.org A Parents Guide To Childrens Privacy Online

    - http://www.privacy.org/ Privacy.org is a joint project of The Electronic Privacy Information Center and Privacy International

    - The Law of Information Privacy { www.epic.org/misc/gulc/ }
    Marc Rotenberg Georgetown University Law Center ashington

    - Privacy Exchange "Internet Privacy Tutorial"

    [PRIVATEPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="http://www.privacyexchange.org/tsi/ptintro.htm]



    By Country

    http://www.privacyinternational.org

    links to 50 countries.

    http://www.austlii.edu.au/links/2972.html

    PRIVATEAustralia - Belgium - Canada - Denmark - Finland - France -Germany - Hong Kong - China - Hungary - Isle of Man - Netherlands - New Zealand - Norway - Portugal - Spain - Switzerland - United Kingdom - United States



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