The Egyptian constitution

Article 1
The Arab Republic of Egypt is a democratic,
socialist State ****d on the alliance of the working
forces of the people.
The Egyptian people are part of the Arab Nation
and work for the realization of its comprehensive
Article 2
Islam is the religion of the state and Arabic its
official language.
Islamic jurisprudence is the principal source of
Article 3
Sovereignty is for the people alone they are the
source of authority.
The people shall exercise and protect this
sovereignty, and safeguard national unity in the
manner specified in the Constitution.
Article 4
The economic foundation of the Arab Republic of
Egypt is a socialist democratic system ****d on
sufficiency and justice in a manner preventing
exploitation, conducive to liquidation of income
differences, protecting legitimate earnings, and
guaranteeing the equity of the distribution of public
duties and responsibilities.
Article 5
The political system of the Arab Republic of Egypt
is a multiparty one, within the framework of the
basic elements and principles of the Egyptian
society as stipulated in the Constitution (Political
parties are regulated by law).
Article 6
The Egyptian nationality is defined by the law.
Article 7
Social solidarity is the basis of the society.
Article 8
The State shall guarantee equality of opportunity to
all citizens.
Article 9
The family is the basis of the society founded on
religion, morality and patriotism.
The State is keen to preserve the genuine
character of the Egyptian family-with what it
embodies of values and traditions-while affirming
and developing this character in the relations within
the Egyptian society.
Article 10
The State shall guarantee the protection of
motherhood and childhood, take care of children
and youth and provide the suitable conditions for
the development of their talents.
Article 11
The State shall guarantee the proper coordination
between the duties of woman towards the family
and her work in the society, considering her equal
with man in the fields of political, social, cultural and
economic life without violation of the rules of
Islamic jurisprudence.
Article 12
The society shall be committed to safeguarding and
protecting morals, promoting the genuine Egyptian
traditions and abiding by the high standards of
religious education, moral and national values,
historical heritage of the people, scientific facts,
socialist conduct and public morality within the
limits of the law.
The State is committed to abiding by these
principles and promoting them.
Article 13
Work is right, a duty and an honour ensured by the
Workers who excel in their field of work shall
receive the appreciation of the State and the
No work shall be imposed on the citizens, except
by virtue of the law, for the performance of a public
service and in return for a fair remuneration.
Article 14
Public offices are the right of all citizens and an
assignment for their occupants in the service of the
The State guarantees their (the occupants)
protection and the performance of their duties in
safeguarding the interests of the people.
They may not be dismissed by other than the
disciplinary way, except in the cases specified by
the law.
Article 15
The war veterans, those injured in war or because
of it, and the wives and children of those killed shall
have priority in work opportunities according to the
Article 16
The State shall guarantee cultural, social and
health services, and work to ensure them for the
villages in particular in an easy and regular manner
in order to raise their standard.
Article 17
The State- shall guarantee social and health
insurance services and all the citizens have the
right to pensions in cases of incapacity,
unemployment and old-age, in accordance with the
Article 18
Education is a right guaranteed by the State.
It is obligatory in the primary stage and the State
shall work to extend obligation to other stages.
The State shall supervise all branches of education
and guarantee the independence of universities
and scientific research centres, with a view to
linking all this with the requirements of society and
Article 19
Religious education shall be a principal subject in
the courses of general education.
Article 20
Education in the State educational institutions shall
be free of charge in its various stages.
Article 21
Combating illiteracy shall be a national duty for
which all the people's energies should be
Article 22
The institution of civil titles shall be prohibited.
Article 23
The national economy shall be organised in
accordance with a comprehensive development
plan which ensures
raising the national income, fair distribution, raising
the standard of living, eliminating unemployment,
work opportunities, connecting wages with
production, fixing a minimum and a maximum limit
for wages in a
manner which guarantees lessening the disparities
between incomes.
Article 24
The people shall control all the means of production
and direct their surplus in accordance with the
plan laid down by the State.
Article 25
Every citizen shall have a share in the national
revenue to be defined by the law in accordance
with his work or his
unexploiting ownership
Article 26
The workers shall have a share in the management
and profits of the projects. They are committed to
development of production and the implementation
of the plan in their production units, in accordance
with the law. protecting the means of production is
a nationalduty Workers shall be represented on the
boards of directors of the public sector units by at
least 50% of the number of members of these
boards. The law shall guarantee for the small
farmers and small craftsmen 80% of the
membership on the boards of directors of the
agricultural CO-operatives and industrial
Article 27
Beneficiaries shall participate in the management of
the services projects of public interest and their
supervision in accordance with the law.
Article 28
The State shall look after the CO-operative
establishments in all their forms and encourage
handicrafts with a view to developing production
and raising income. The State shall endeavour to
consolidate the agricultural cooperatives according
to modern scientific ****s.
Article 29
Ownership shall be under the supervision of the
people and the protection of the State.
There are three kinds:
public ownership, cooperative ownership and
private ownership.
Article 30
Public ownership is the ownership of the people
and it is confirmed by the continuous consolidation
of the public sector. The Public sector shall be the
vanguard of progress in all spheres and shall
assume the main responsibility in the
development plan.
Article 31
Co-operative ownership is the ownership of the cooperative
societies. The law guarantees its
protection and self-management.
Article 32
Private ownership shall be represented by the
unexploiting capital. The law organises the
performance of its social function in the service of
national economy within the framework of the
development plan without deviation or exploitation.
it may not be in conflict, in the ways of its use, with
the general welfare of the people.
Article 33
Public ownership shall have its sanctity, and its
protection and consolidation is the duty of every
citizen in
accordance with the law, as it is considered the
mainstay of the strength of the homeland, a basis
for the socialist system and a source of prosperity
of the people.
Article 34
Private ownership shall be safeguarded and may
not be put under sequestration except in the cases
specified in the law and with a judicial decision. It
may not be expropriated except for the general
good and against a fair compensation in
accordance with the law. The right of inheritance is
guaranteed in it.
Article 35
Nationalisation shall not be allowed except for
considerations of public interest, in accordance with
a law and against a compensation.
Article 36
General sequestration of funds shall be prohibited.
Private sequestration shall not be allowed except
with a judicial decision.
Article 37
The law shall fix the maximum limit of land
ownership with a view to protecting the farmer and
the agricultural labourer from exploitation and
asserting the authority of the alliance of the
people's working powers at the level of the village.
Article 38
The tax system shall be ****d on social justice.
Article 39
Saving is a national duty protected, encouraged
and organised by the State.
Article 40
All citizens are equal before the law.
They have equal public rights and duties without
discrimination between them due to race, ethnic
origin, language, religion or creed.
Article 41
Individual freedom is a natural right and shall not be
touched. Except in cases of a flagrant delicate no
person may be arrested, inspected, detained or his
freedom restricted or prevented from free
movement except by an or necessitated by
investigations and preservation of the security of
the society. This order shall be given by the
competent judge or the Public Prosecution in
accordance with the
provisions of the
The law
shall determine the period of custody.
Article 42
Any person arrested, detained or his freedom
restricted shall be treated in the manner
concomitant with the
preservation of his dignity.
No physical or moral harm is to be inflicted upon
He may not be detained or imprisoned except in
places defined by laws organising prisons.
If a confession is proved to have been made by a
person under any of the aforementioned forms of
duress or
coercion, it shall be considered invalid and futile.
Article 43
Any medical or scientific experiment may not be
undergone on any person without his free consent.
Article 44
Homes shall have their sanctity and they may not
be entered or inspected except by a causal judicial
prescribed by the law.
Article 45
The law shall protect the inviolability of the private
life of citizens.
Correspondence, wires, telephone calls an other
means of communication shall have their own
sanctity and secrecy
and may not be confiscated or monitored except by
a causal judicial warrant and for a definite period
according to
the provisions of the law.
Article 46
The State shall guarantee the freedom of belief and
the freedom of practice of religious rites.
Article 47
Freedom of opinion is guaranteed.
Every individual has the right to express his opinion
and to publicise it verbally or in writing or by
photography or
by other means within the limits of the law.
Self-criticism and constructive criticism is the
guarantee for the safety of the national structure.
Article 48
Freedom of the press, printing, publication and
mass media shall be guaranteed.
Censorship on newspapers is forbidden as well as
notifying, suspending or cancelling them by
In a state of emergency or in time of war a limited
censorship may be imposed on the newspapers
publications and
mass media in matters related to public safety or
purposes of national security in accordance with
the law.
Article 49
The State shall guarantee the freedom of scientific
research and literary, artistic and cultural invention
provide the necessary means for its realisation.
Article 50
No citizen may be prohibited from residing in any
place and no citizen may be forced to reside in a
particular place,
except in the cases defined by the law.
Article 51
No citizen may be deported from the country or
prevented from returning to it.
Article 52
Citizens shall have the right to permanent or
temporary immigration.
The law shall regulate this right and the measures
and conditions of immigration and leaving the
Article 53
The right to political asylum shall be guaranteed by
the State for every foreigner persecuted for
defending the
peoples' interests, human rights, peace or justice.
The extradition of political refugees is prohibited.
Article 54
Citizens shall have the right to peaceable and
unarmed private assembly, without the need for
prior notice.
Security men should not attend these private
Public meetings, processions and gatherings are
allowed within the limits of the law.
Article 55
Citizens shall have the right to form societies as
defined in the law.
The establishment of societies whose activities are
hostile to the social system, clandestine or have a
character is prohibited.
Article 56
The creation of syndicates and unions on a
democratic basis is a right guaranteed by law, and
should have a moral
The law regulates the participation of syndicates
and unions in carrying out the social programmes
and plans,
raising the standard of efficiency, consolidating the
socialist behavior among their members, and
their funds.
They are responsible for questioning their members
about their behavior in exercising their activities
according to
certain codes of morals, and for defending the
rights and liberties of their members as defined in
the law.
Article 57
Any assault on individual freedom or on the
inviolability of private life of citizens and any other
public rights and
liberties guaranteed by the Constitution and the law
shall be considered a crime, whose criminal and
civil lawsuit is
not liable to prescription.
The State shall grant a fair compensation to the
victim of such an assault.
Article 58
The defense of the motherland is a sacred duty,
and conscription is obligatory in accordance with
the law.
Article 59
Safeguarding, consolidating and preserving the
socialist gains is a national duty.
Article 60
Protecting national unity and keeping State secrets
is the duty of every citizen.
Article 61
Payment of taxes and public imports is a duty, in
accordance with the law.
Article 62
Citizens shall have the right to vote, nominate and
express their opinions in referendums according to
provisions of the law.
Their participation in public life is a national duty.
Article 63
Every individual has the right to address public
authorities in writing and with his own signature.
Addressing public authorities should not be in the
name of groups, with the exception of disciplinary
organs and
moral personalities.
Article 64
Sovereignty of the law shall be the basis of rule in
the State.
Article 65
The State shall be subject to law.
The independence and immunity of the judiciary
are two basic guarantees to safeguard rights and
Article 66
Penalty shall be personal.
There shall be no crime or penalty except by virtue
of the law.
No penalty shall be inflicted except by a judicial
Penalty shall be inflicted only for acts committed
subsequent to the promulgation of the law
prescribing them.
Article 67
Any defendant is innocent until he is proved guilty
before a legal court, in which he is granted the right
to defend
Every person accused of a crime must be provided
with counsel for his defense.
Article 68
The right to litigation is inalienable for all, and every
citizen has the right to refer to his competent judge.
The State shall guarantee the accessibility of the
judicature organs to litigants, and the rapidity of
statuting on
Any provision in the law stipulating the immunity of
any act or administrative decision from the control
of the
judicature is prohibited.
Article 69
The right of defense in person or by mandate is
The Law shall grant the financially incapable
citizens the means to resort to justice and defend
their rights.
Article 70
No penal lawsuit shall be sued except by an order
from a judicature organ and in cases defined by the
Article 71
Any person arrested or detained should be
informed, forthwith with the reasons for his arrest or
He has the right to communicate, inform, and ask
the help of anyone as prescribed in the law.
He must be faced, as soon as possible, with the
charges directed against him.
Any person may lodge a complaint to the courts
against any measure taken to restrict his individual
The law regulates the right of complaint in a
manner ensuring a ruling regarding it within a
definite period, or else
release is imperative.
Article 72
Sentences shall be passed and executed in the
name of the people.
Likewise, refraining to execute sentences or
obstructing them on the part of the concerned civil
servants Is
considered a crime punishable by law.
In this case, those whom the sentence is in favour
of, have the right to sue a direct penal lawsuit
before the
competent court.
Article 73
The Head of State is the President of the Republic.
He shall assert the sovereignty of the people,
respect the Constitution and the supremacy of the
law, safeguard the
national unity and the socialist gains, and maintain
the boundaries between authorities in a manner to
ensure that
each shall perform its role in the national action.
Article 74
If any danger threatens the national unity or the
safety of the motherland or obstructs the
constitutional role of the
State institutions, the President of the Republic
shall take urgent measures to face this danger,
direct a statement
to the people and conduct a referendum on these
measures within sixty days of its adoption.
Article 75
The person to be elected President of the Republic
must be an Egyptian born to Egyptian parents and
enjoy civil
and political rights.
His age must not be less than 40
Gregorian years.
Article 76
The People's Assembly shall nominate the
President of the Republic.
The nomination shall be referred to the people for a