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  1. #1
    Jan 2006
    1,079



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    1. Droit administratif, 1995.

    2. Trait de droit administratif, t. I, 11 ed.

    Jacques Chevalier, science administrative, Thmis, 1994.

    L. Duguit, Trait de droit constitutionnel, 3e d. T.I,.

    Agathe Van lange, Juge judiciaire et droit administratif, 1996.

    Mehan E. Cook & Others: Making a case for local E-government.

    Electronic Government strategic plan-state of Texas.





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    Summary

    The money laundering crime is relatively a modern type of crime in which the criminals tend to hide the illegal source of the money and let it appear as derived from legal operations. This crime has many aspects and is now considered one of the internationally organized crimes. Thus, in studying this crime, it is difficult to make a distinction between its national and international aspects. Therefore, both aspects should be taken into consideration in order to cover all its forms and find the right solutions for their elimination.

    Since there was a common since between countries of the seriousness of the money laundering crime nationally and internationally, many international treaties were concluded that demonstrate the importance of combating money laundering through a separate national legislation and that countries should not depend upon the existing relevant penalizing articles. There should also be a way of international cooperation by providing information in this filed that enables countries to trace this phenomenon in order to eliminate it and prevent its negative implications.

    The money laundering crime assumes the commitment of a precedent crime from which the laundered money is derived. Regarding this issue, the countries departed from giving there full concern only to trafficking in narcotic drugs and moved forward to include other types of crimes that have similar aspects of the narcotic drugs crimes such as the illegal sources of the money and the large amounts of the money laundered.

    In the past, the traditional criminal conduct used to undergo three stages, namely, deposit, accumulation, and merger. Nowadays, and with regard to the speedy developments in information and communication technology, the criminals shifted to used electronic criminal conduct in which they use computers, internet, and at distance programs for money laundering. Therefore, there was a stressing need to combat this attitude through international cooperation that includes the exchange of information and the control over the banking sector, taking into consideration that the laws regulating banks accounts secrecy do not preclude tracing the legality of the source of the money as they do not grant absolute rights to the accounts owners.



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    Electronic government and public utilities

    Abstract

    Nowadays electronic government became a necessity. Every modern country must try to go along with the digital revolution in order to be in accordance with the international information awakening. The E-government has many merits for the public utility services. It covers performance rapidity, presents more proficiency, decreases charges, and simplifies procedures, in addition to attaining administrative transparence.

    In the E-government system principles of public utilities are more assured or require support:

    1. Principle of continuity f public utilities functions better. The web site provides citizen with permanent access to issue specific information. In the middle of the night he can find out the response he needs instead of waiting for the administrative office to open the next day.

    2. Principles of legality in front of public utilities necessitate for its real implementation an administrative help to those who have no computer and cannot use internet.

    In order to obtain the requirements of public utilities the administration can contract easier and faster through the internet.

    Out of E-government it is easy to explore citizen views about utility services and public concerns rapidly and accurately.

    Success of E-government calls for struggling against electronic illiteracy, enacting appropriate legislations, preparing specialized staff, following up electronic progress and studying other's experiences in the field.

  2. #2
    Jun 2008
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  3. #3
    Jan 2006
    1,079

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    3rbmall.fathi
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