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  1. #1
    Jul 2007
    1,023

    [align=justify] () .
    : . .
    .
    : :
    1- Insecticides
    2-- Fungicides
    3- Herbicides
    4- Rodenticides
    .
    (Insecticides):
    :
    - (Organochlorine insecticides):
    .
    :
    1- . . . (Dichloro- Diphenyl-Trichloroethane (D.D.T.
    - Toxaphene - chlordan
    - - Endosulphan (Thiodan) lindane
    . ǡ .
    : () .
    : -
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    - (Organophosphorus insecticides):
    : - (parathion) - (malathion)
    - (dipterex)
    . .
    : (cholinesterase) ǡ ( 40% 60% .
    : .
    : ϡ ɡ .
    (1 48 ) (toxogonin) 250 .
    (Parathion):
    .
    (parasympathetic) : (bronchospasm) (myoneural juncyion) .
    (anxiety)
    .
    : .
    - (Carbamates ):
    :
    Sevin
    Isolan
    Dimetan
    Pyramat
    Carbaryl
    Propoxur
    ɡ .
    : .
    : .
    (Pyrethrin) : (pyrethrum) (synthetic pyrethrin)
    .
    : (convulsion).
    : .
    .
    .
    .
    ǡ : - .
    - .
    - .
    - .
    - .
    -
    - .
    2- (Fungicides):
    ǡ ӡ ʡ 텅 . (dinitrophenol) :
    - - Dinocap- B
    - . . . . D.N.O.C.
    () ɡ (tachycardia) .
    3- (Herbicides):
    .
    : Paraquat
    Diaquat
    .
    .
    .
    : (normal saline) 4 24 .
    4- (Rodenticides):
    (warfarin) .
    .
    : .
    :
    .
    (copper arsenate) Ӆ. (acme weed killer, atlas- A, penite, kill All )
    (, zinc phosphide Rat poison) .
    : .
    : .
    .
    .
    :
    (ȡ ֡ х.. ) .
    .
    : .
    : .
    3-5 .

    . :


    (synergism)

    50% .
    :
    (1) :
    () (Tranquilizers):
    :
    (1) (Major tranquilizer):
    () (Trifluoperazine stelazine) (promazine, sparine) Largactil)
    (melleril, Thioridzine)
    () (Non phenothiazines)
    (buterophenones) (haloperidol)
    (thioxanthenes) ()
    (Diphenyl butyl piperidines ) (Orap)
    (Dibenzodiazepine) (clozapine)
    (2) Minor tranquilizer)
    (anticonvulsant) .
    (partial ptosis) (Ataxia) .
    :
    .
    .



    () (Hypnotics ):

    (1) (Barbiturates ):
    .
    .
    :
    ( ) (Long acting) (Phenobarbital, Luminal)
    () ( Intermediate acting) (Amobarbital, Amytal)
    () ( short acting) (Secobarbital, Secona)
    () (Ultra short acting) (Thiopental, Pentothal)
    ( ) . .
    .
    :
    (Stertorous breathing) (Albuminuria) .
    :
    .
    :

    (endotracheal tube)

    - . .


    (2) (chloral hydrate):
    1869
    .
    , ()
    .
    : .

    (Dialysis).
    () ( Stimulants):
    .
    (1) (Amphetamine ):
    .
    . .
    .
    :
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    (2) ( Theophylline and caffeine):
    . ( .) 85 30 40 - 60 (cafergot) (theophyline ethylenediamine) (left sided heart failure) (status epilepticus) (dysrhythmias).
    :
    (hemoperfusion).
    () (Tricyclic antidepressants)
    (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)
    ( imipramine HCL) 1948 1958 1959 .
    :
    Ventricular) arrhythmias) .
    :
    . ( (P H 7,45 - 55, 7. . .
    : 1988 (prozac) () (dysyrel) (arrhythmia) .
    .
    () (anticonvulsant):
    :
    1- (phenytoin)
    2- (carbamaebine)
    3- (valproic acid)
    4- (phenbarbital)
    5- (primidone)
    (phenytoin):
    1938 (status epilepticus) .
    .
    (phenytoin): ( )
    (tremor) (nystgmus) (double vision) (ataxia). .
    .
    : 50 / (propylene glycol) .
    (Fetal phenytoin syndrome) 10% 30% (clift lip) (limb defect).
    :
    .
    (carbamaebine):
    .
    : (idiosyncrasy) ( ) .
    :
    .
    (valproic acid): 1978
    : (nystagmus) .
    :
    .
    (primidone): .
    (2) :
    :
    1- (B blockers):
    .
    :
    . 3- 10 5 .
    (2) (calcium channel blockers):
    5 .
    :
    10 % 1 .
    (3) (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors)
    capoten, (monopril), (univasc) (kinase II) (angiotensin II) (angiotensin I) .
    .
    :
    () .
    () :
    (pectoris angina) (isosorbide dinitrate (isordil .
    : (methaemoblobinaemia) ( ) 30% .
    15% 30 %.
    :
    (methylene blue) 1-2 /.
    (3 ) (Analgesics & Antipyretics ):
    . .
    (1) (paracetamol):
    ((panadol , tylenol, paramoletc. (dextropropoxyphene ) (Dolostop). 10-15 / 140/ .
    ( ) ( ) liver necrosis Atrophy , Pancreatitis. : 48 ġ (right subcostal margin) (liver tenderness) (jaundice) .
    :
    ɡ .
    (N-acetyl cystein, mucomyst) 5% 140 / 70 / /4 .
    (parvolex) 150 / 200 15 50 / 500 4 100 / 16 . .
    (diphenhydramin) .
    (2) ( Salicylates) ():
    (Aspocid, aspegic, askine, rivo.etc). 10-15 / 150 / . :
    .
    .
    ӡ (metabolic acidosis).
    ( ).
    .
    :
    ɡ .
    .
    6 100/ (Done nomogram).
    .
    (3) (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs):
    :
    (Phenylbutazone) - (Diflunisal)
    (Piroxicam) - (Sulindac)
    (Fenoprofen) - (Indomethacin)
    (Tolmetin) - (Meclofenamate)
    (Naproxen) - (Ibuprofen)
    . :
    .

    (metabolic acidosis) .
    .
    :
    ɡ .
    .
    .
    (4) ( ):
    H1 ( (H2 (H3)
    :
    H1: .
    H2: .
    : H1 (anticholinergic) . .
    H2: H1 20 (cimetidine) .
    .
    : .
    [/align]

  2. #2
    Mar 2008
    179





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