المساعد الشخصي الرقمي

مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : مادة Anglo - American law لطلاب الفرقة الاولى - شعبة اللغة الانجليزية



د.محمد سادات
23-10-2011, 11:27 AM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

في هذا الموضوع سوف نناقش اية استفسارات متعلقة بمادة Anglo - American law ومراجعة عمل المجموعات بإذن الله.

محمد الدميرى
31-10-2011, 05:16 AM
شكرا يادكتور محمد على الى بتعمله معنا فى مادة الانجلو وجزاك الله خير وربنا يعين حضرتك علينا وان شاء الله هنقدم ليك شغل جميل جدا فى القانون الدستورى..........
بس انا عندى استفسار فى البور بوينت ازاى اضيف شريجة جديدة بعد تحميلها على البرنامج؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟..............وشكراجزيلا

:tulips:

محمد الدميرى
31-10-2011, 02:11 PM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته


في هذا الموضوع سوف نناقش اية استفسارات متعلقة بمادة Anglo - American law ومراجعة عمل المجموعات بإذن الله.

جزاك الله خيرا على هذا المجهود الكبير وربنا يعين حضرتك علينا وان شاء الله هنعمل حاجات جميلة فى القانون الدستور

د.محمد سادات
01-11-2011, 12:31 AM
شكرا يادكتور محمد على الى بتعمله معنا فى مادة الانجلو وجزاك الله خير وربنا يعين حضرتك علينا وان شاء الله هنقدم ليك شغل جميل جدا فى القانون الدستورى..........
بس انا عندى استفسار فى البور بوينت ازاى اضيف شريجة جديدة بعد تحميلها على البرنامج؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟..............وشكراجزيلا

:tulips:
شكرا يا محمد, بالنسبة لاستفسارك هل انت بتقصد انك حملت تصميم جديد؟؟؟؟؟

محمد الدميرى
01-11-2011, 05:07 AM
انا متشكر جدا يا دكتزر محمد انا خلاص عرفت انزلها على البرنامج من النت وان شاء الله هتعجب حضرتك جدا

محمد الدميرى
04-11-2011, 03:22 AM
معلش يا دكتر عندى استفسار مع ان ممكن يكون ناس كتير سألت حضرتك نفس السوال................. ازاى اذكر مادة الانجلو بس ياريت تجوبنى بسرعة لانى فى حاجات مش فاهمة خالص فى الاحكام القضائية بتاع مصادر القانون الامريكى؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟............... وشكرا جزيلا

د.محمد سادات
05-11-2011, 02:04 AM
معلش يا دكتر عندى استفسار مع ان ممكن يكون ناس كتير سألت حضرتك نفس السوال................. ازاى اذكر مادة الانجلو بس ياريت تجوبنى بسرعة لانى فى حاجات مش فاهمة خالص فى الاحكام القضائية بتاع مصادر القانون الامريكى؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟............... وشكرا جزيلا

اولا افهم فكرة الموضوع فكرته ايه وبعدين تذاكره وحاول تكتب باسلوبك

محمد الدميرى
08-11-2011, 09:49 PM
متشكر لحضرتك جدا:tulips:

حماقي
09-11-2011, 11:33 PM
لو سمحت يادكتور في امتحان منتصف الفصل الدراسي الاول للفرقة الاولي انجليزى ولا لاء

د.محمد سادات
10-11-2011, 01:22 AM
لو سمحت يادكتور في امتحان منتصف الفصل الدراسي الاول للفرقة الاولي انجليزى ولا لاء
موضوع عودة الميد تيرم بشكله القديم احتمال كبير سيكون محل مناقشة باذن الله في مجلس الكلية القادم باذن الله واعتقد انه يوجد اتجاه للعودة بالعمل للقواعد القديمة باذن الله

ساره السرجاني
10-11-2011, 11:19 PM
لو سمحت يادكتور كنت عايزه اعرف ازاي ابعت لحضرتك البحث علي النت علشان حضرتك تقيمه قبل العرض يوم الاحد في موقع معين ؟ واكتبه ولا اعمل ايه يادكتور انا كتبته في ورقه وجاهز لكن ازاي ادخله علي منتدي حضرتك؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

محمد الدميرى
11-11-2011, 03:37 AM
ده الى قدرنا نلخصه فى القانون الدستور ويارب يعجب حضرتك وفى جزء لسة هرفعه على الموقع


Designed by:


The legal system group


written by:


Mohamed Hassan EL-dmareiy





The Definition :-




Constitutional law:- the law that determinesthe relationship of the citizen to the state and that controls the operation of the various branches of the state.Or , it is the written text of the state and federal constitutions. It includes the body of judicial precedent that has gradually developed through a process in which court interpret , apply and explain the meaning of particular constitutional provisions and principles during a legal proceeding



Scope and Sources:-







Constitutional law is a body of public law that includes the constitution itself and the amendments to the original document as well as judicial decisions and legislative enactments that apply to and interpret that document and its amendments. Any legislative enactment or judicial decision that is in violation of a constitutional provision is deemed to be null and void. Thus, constitutional law is the supreme law of our society.







This branch of law also defines and organizes the powers of government among various political and legal actors. In the United States constitutional law is very large component of the law in existence. The amendments to the constitution are also highly regulative of governmental and individual citizens.








The Supreme Court of United States has been an important actor in promulgating constitutional law by interpreting and applying that document to specific cases brought to them. Many of the most famous decisions that have been made by the Supreme Court have been interpretations of the Constitution and are therefore part of the body of constitutional law whatever its source, constitutional law is the fundamental law of a nation or state.





characteristics







One of the cardinal limitations on the Court'spowerof judicial review of federal and state legislation on constitutional grounds is that it will decide only a ripened controversy in which the result are of immediate consequence to the parties and will not render advisory opinions or entertain no adversary proceeding.







Onewriter has called it the *central paradox* of the jurisdiction and function of the Supreme Court that *its special role is to resolve quotations of general importance transcending the Interests of the litigants and yet it will do so only where necessary to adjudicate a conventional legal dispute between the parties*. All in all, the mechanics of judicial review tend to bring constitutional issues before the court, not at times of its own choosing, but at times determined by aggrieved litigants and history.







Most of these issues can be grouped under two main headings: maintenance of the federal system and preservation of individual rights. The major problems under the first heading arise under the commerce clause. The ensure a single, free national market ,the farmers of the constitutions entrusted to congress the power *To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.*





to be continued .......................

د.محمد سادات
11-11-2011, 12:09 PM
لو سمحت يادكتور كنت عايزه اعرف ازاي ابعت لحضرتك البحث علي النت علشان حضرتك تقيمه قبل العرض يوم الاحد في موقع معين ؟ واكتبه ولا اعمل ايه يادكتور انا كتبته في ورقه وجاهز لكن ازاي ادخله علي منتدي حضرتك؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟
تقدري تكتبه علي الكمبيوتر وتضيفيه في مشاركة

محمد الدميرى
11-11-2011, 04:42 PM


• The second main heading, preservation of individual rights, derives chiefly from the amendments to the constitution. The bill of rights, embodied in the first ten amendments ratified in 1791,secures the rights of the individual against the federal government. Of even greater significance are the protections created in the nineteenth century that the federal constitution affords the individual against the states.



The chief source of these is the fourteen amendment, the most important of three amendments of the Constitution adopted soon after the Civil War and originally indented to abolish slavery and ensure the freedom of African descendents in the United States.

د.محمد سادات
12-11-2011, 12:13 PM
بالنسبة للجزء الخاص بالقانون الدستوري سوف نتكتفي بالتعريف والنطاق والمصادر, على ان يكون علي النحو الآتي:

The Definition :-

Constitutional law:

the law that determines the relationship of the citizen to the state and that controls the operation of the various branches of the state.
Or. it is the written text of the state and federal constitutions. It includes the body of judicial precedent that has gradually developed through a process in which court interpret , apply and explain the meaning of particular constitutional provisions and principles during a legal proceeding

Scope and Source:

Constitutional law is a body of public law that includes the constitution itself and the amendments to the original document as well as judicial decisions and legislative enactments that apply to and interpret that document and its amendments. Any legislative enactment or judicial decision that is in violation of a constitutional provision is deemed to be null and void. Thus, constitutional law is the supreme law of our society. The defining feature of both constitutions and constitutional law is that they provide limitations on the power of government.

This branch of law also defines and organizes the powers of government among various political and legal actors. In the United States constitutional law is very large component of the law in existence.

The amendments to the Constitution are also highly regulative of governmental relationships both in terms of the federal state relationship and with respect to the relationship between the government and individual citizens. These additions to the basic corpus of the Constitution have been added over time, but they represent the same type of fundamental legal authority as the original text of the Constitution.

The Supreme Court of United States has been an important actor in promulgating constitutional law by interpreting and applying that document to specific cases brought to them. Many of the most famous decisions that have been made by the Supreme Court have been interpretations of the Constitution and are therefore part of the body of constitutional law whatever its source, constitutional law is the fundamental law of a nation or state
.
Constitutional law defines the spheres of governmental power and places limitations on that power. It defines and regulates the relationship between government and individuals. It is the standard that must be met by all other laws
The primary source in this field is, of course, the text of the Constitution itself, the oldest written national constitution now in use.

محمد الدميرى
13-11-2011, 12:18 AM
طيب انا ان شاء الله هجيبها على فلاشة بكرة ان شاء الله علشان نعرضها

حماقي
17-11-2011, 12:39 AM
بعد اذنك حضرتك امتحان الانجلو حايجي اجبارى ولااختيارى

د.محمد سادات
17-11-2011, 08:26 PM
بعد اذنك حضرتك امتحان الانجلو حايجي اجبارى ولااختيارى
الاسئلة اجباري باذن الله

the finder
01-12-2011, 01:08 AM
حضرتك يا دكتور ده ملخص قانون environmental law
هل أعمل عرض بور بوينت ولا لا ؟؟؟


Environmental law: is a complex collection of federal and state statutes and regulations, and common-law principles, these laws seek to control the deterioration of the environment by the overuse



Scope and sources



the environmental law of the united states is in part derived from the English common law of property, which is still the basis for state-law actions for nuisance, trespass and certain other causes of action.
the bulk of the field is the result of a series of ambitious statutes to regulate threats to the environment and to wildlife and to human health, passes by congress, initially in the 1970s,with coordinate statutes enacted by the state legislatures ,each of which are further elaborated by regulations by federal and state agencies.
in many instances, these statutes correspond to international treaty commitments of the united states.

environmental law encompasses a great number of forms of regulation and causes of action but for the last thirty years, the regulation of pollution and materials or activities that cause pollution ,as well as the protection of wildlife and habitat.


Characteristics





Actions for nuisance, trespass, or negligence are generally
Governed by state law and are largely unaffected by the statutory environmental law. the major federal statutes are intended to inhibit activity that would degrade the natural or human environment and regulate the use of all wastes generally;

other statutes regulate the taking of endangered species as well as regulate major federal projects .

the statutes provide for enforcement of these statutes by federal agencies, such as the environmental protection agency, army corps of engineers, and the us. coast guard, although most statutes, particularly the administrative procedures

mero mohi
05-12-2011, 03:00 AM
Property Property: anything that can be owned. A distinction is made between real property (land and incorporeal hereditaments) and personal property and between tangible property (that which has a physical exsistence e.g. chattels and land) and intangible property (intellecual property and incorporeal hereditaments) Scope and sources: the roots of American property law are in the feudal land law of medieval England. it distinguishes between real property,which historically consisted cheifly of feudally important estates in land, and personal property, which consisted of most other assets tangible and intangible. there has been a tendency in the United States towards its gradual elimination. for example, the rules of intestate succession are now largely the same for real and personal property. property law is still concerned primarily with real property. it includes the kinds of interests one may have and types of ownership that maybe created in property; conveyances of property from owner to another, mortages and other claims to another's property; gifts,transfers and other inter vivos transfers property after the owner's death, through wills and intestate succession; the creation and mangement of trusts over property and restrictions on the use of property. in several areas in the United States under the rule of Spain or France the influence of the civil law can still be detected and eight states noow recognize what is known as communiy property in which husband and wife have a vareity of common ownership that is derived from the civil law. Characteristics: the first great divison among these demarcates those legal interests that confer of may confer upon the holder of the interest the actual right of owner ship with a right of possession of the land. these are then divided into possessory estates or interests and future or nonpossessory estates or interests. possessory interests are classified according to duration and future interests according to the probability or cerainty of the holder coming into possession and the conditions under which possession is gained or lost. there are rights of possession that confer no ownership the most important of which is the leasehold, a non freehold estate similar to freehold for a term of years. there are also present non possessory interests such as easements and franchises which consist only of limitations on the rights of another to use and enjoyment of the land. last, there are interests that maybe divided among people at the same time or cotnenancies. the most significant departure from English property law after the revolution related to assurance of title. the standard instrument of land transfer in America is the deed. it sometimes contains a provision by which the transferor agrees to compensate the transferee for loss resulting from defective title. in England, the transferee got further assurance by examination of the original deeds which were passed on with the land. A differentt system, that of public recordation, came into use with the colonies. State recording acts require that all conveyances be promptly recorded in a local public office. the penalty for failure to record is loss of priority to other competing interests. An alternative to recordation known as registration or the torrens system exists to some degree in a minority of states. In recent decades, the attention of the American property lawyer has turned increasingly from law transfer to other two areas; first, the transmission of wealth on death and second, restrictions on the use and enjoyment of land. the importance of the first of these areas has been enhanced by the taxation of estates on death at both the federal and state level. In the United States, patent, trademark and copyright are largely matters of federal law though state law could be the basis of copyright until 1978 when state copyright was nearly eliminated by federal law. Though the registration of these interests is adminstrative they are usually enforced by private causes of action for infringement. the United States participates in an array of treaties to integrate its standards with other countries including the world trade organization agreement on trade related aspects of intellecual property rights of TRIPS. الملكية الملكية : اي شئ يمكن امتلاكه. يوجد فارق بين الملكية العقارية (الاراضي و الملكيات المادية و الذهنية) و الممتلكات الشخصية (كل انواع الملكيات الاخري) و بين الملكيات المحسوسة (التي لها وجود مادي مثل المنقولات و الاراضي) و الملكيات غير المحسوسة (الملكية الفكرية و الملكيات المادية و الذهنية) المجال و المصدر : جذور قانون الملكية الامريكية هو من القانون الاقطاعي لانجلترا في العصور الوسطي. و من ثم, فانها تفرق بين الممتلكات العقارية و التي تاريخيا تكونت رئيسيا من عقارات اقطاعية مهمة و الملكيات الخاصة و التي تكونت من الموجودات الاخري المحسوسة و الغير محسوسة. الاختلاف استمر حتي بعد تطور انجلترا الي الامة التجارية و الممتلكات الشخصية اصبحت لها اهمية اعظم بكثير و لكن كان هنالك ميل من الولايات المتحدة ناحية القضاء التدريجي عليها. مثال علي ذلك : قوانين وصية الخلافة هي الان بطريقة كبيرة نفس قوانين العقارات و الملكية الشخصية. لكن ولان المعاملات التجارية في الملكيات الشخصية والتي تبناها جزء متميز من القانون التجاري, قانون الملكية لازال مختص رئيسيا بملكية العقارات. فهو يتضمن انواع المصالح التي يملكها الشخص و انواع الملكية التي يمكن ان تنشأ في الملكية, نقل الملكية من شخص لاخر, الرهن و المطالبة بملكيات الاخرين من هدايا, تحويلات, تناقل المصالح في الملكية بين الاحياء و تحويل الملكية بعد موت المالك من خلال الوصايا و وصايا الخلافة, وجد و ادارة مسئولية الملكية و قيود استعمال الملكية. في اماكن كثيرة في الولايات المتحدة التي كانت في فترة خاضعة لاسبانيا او فرنسا تأثير كبير للقانون المدني ممكن اكتشافه و ثمان ولايات الان تعترف بملكية المجتمع والتي تمنح للزوج و الزوجة انواع من الملكيات المشتركة المستاقة من القانون المدني. الخصائص: اول تقسيم عظيم بين هذه المصالح التي تمنح او ربما تمنح لمالك المصلحة الحق الصحيح للملكية مع الامتلاك الصحيح للارض. و هؤلاء بعد ذلك يقسموا الي العقارات الحيازية و التي تعطي للمالك حق التملك في الحاضر و المستقبل او العقارات غير الحيازية و التي من خلالها يمكن للمالك ان يحصل علي الحيازة في وقت من المستقبل. المصالح الحيازية تقسم علي حسب المدة وعلي حسب المصالح المستقبلية علي حسب قابلية او تاكيد حصول المالك علي الحيازة والظروف التي بها تكسب الحيازة او تخسرها. هناك حقوق للحيازة التي لا تمنح اي امتلاك, واهمهم هو عقد الايجار, الاراضي غير مملوكة ملكية تامة لمدة من السنوات. هنالك ايضا مصالح حالية غير حيازية مثل الارتفاق و الامتياز و التي تتكون فقط من حدود علي حقوق الاخرين لاستخدام و التمتع بالاراضي. اخيرا, هناك الكثير من المصالح التي تقسم بين الناس في نفس الوقت او مشاركات بالايجار. اهم انتقال لقانون الملكية الانجليزي بعد الثورة متعلق بضمان الملكية. الاداة الاعتيادية لنقل الاراضي في امريكا هو السند, كتابات كتبت تاريخيا خلال صك و التي تمنح الضمان للملكية التي تصف عن طريق فعل التسليم الصك. انه احيانا يحتوي شروط والتي بمقتضاها يوافق الناقل علي تعويض المنتقل اليه للخسارة الناتجة عن عيب الملكية. في انجلترا, المنتقل اليه حصل علي ضمان اكثر بفحص للصكوك الاصلية و التي جاءت مع الارض. نظام مختلف جاء من القيد العام اصبح قيد الاستعمال في المستعمرات و من ثم انتشرت في الولايات المتحدة. سجل الدولة يتطلب ان كل وسائل النقل تسجل فورا في مكتب محلي عام. جزاء القصور لتسجيل هو خسارة الاولوية للمصالح الاخري المتنافسة. كبديل للقيد المعروف بتسجيل الملكية او نظام تورنس يوجد علي بعض الدرجات في اقلية من الولايات. في العقود الاخيرة, اهتمام محامي القانون الامريكي تحول بزيادة من نقل الاراضي الي مجالين اخرين: اولا, انتقال الارث في الموت و ثانيا, القيود علي استخدام و التمتع بالارض. اهمية اول هذين المجالين تم تحسينه بضرائب العقارات عن الموت في كلا من المستوي الفدرالي و مستوي الدولة. في الولايات المتحدة, براءة الاختراع العلامة التجارية و حقوق النشر هي بطريقة كبيرة من شأن القانون الفدرالي و بالرغم ان قوانين الولاية يمكن ان تكون هي اساس حقوق النشر حتي 1978 حيث تم تقريبا انهاء حقوق النشر للولاية بالقانون الفدرالي. و بالرغم من ان التسجيل فب هذه المصالح اداري فهم غالبا يتم تنفيذهم بدعاوي خاصة بالتعدي.الولايات المتحدة تشارك في اي مجموعة من المعاهدات لتطور مستوياتها مع الدول الخري متضمنا اتفاق منظمة التجارة العالمية علي الجوانب المتصلة بالتجارة في حقوق الملكية الفكرية. Notice: TRIPS= trade related aspects of intellectual property

sasa_koko556
05-12-2011, 04:41 AM
لو سمحت يا دكتورمحمد امتحانات الترم من المتوقع تكون امتى وشكرا

د.محمد سادات
05-12-2011, 09:10 PM
لو سمحت يا دكتورمحمد امتحانات الترم من المتوقع تكون امتى وشكرا
الامتحانات للانتظام والانتساب 8/1
والتعليم المفتوح 1/1 باذن الله

د.محمد سادات
06-12-2011, 10:20 PM
الجزء الخاص بقانون البيئة سوف يكون كالتالي



Environmental law:is acomplexcollection of federal and state statutes and regulations, and common-lawprinciples,which seek to control the impacts of human beings and theiractivities on thenatural environment and natural resources.These lawsseek to control the deterioration ofthe environment by (1) the overuse ordepletion of natural resources, such asland, water, and biodiversity, and (2) pollution,such as air and waterpollution, and waste production and disposal


The environmentallaw of the United Statesis in part derived from the English common law of property, which is still thebasis for state-law actions for nuisance, trespass, and certain other causes ofaction such as negligence and the maintenance of water wells. Even so, the bulkof the field is the result of a series of ambitious statutes to regulatethreats to the environment and to wildlife and to human health, passed byCongress, initially in the 1970s, with coordinate statutes enacted by the statelegislatures, each of which are further elaborated by regulations by federaland state agencies. In many instances, these statutes correspond tointernational treaty commitments of the United States.



Environmental law encompasses a great number of forms of regulation and causes of action, includingat its widest scope, laws regulating the use of public waters and lands, creatingnational parks, regulating hazards from chemical and noise in the workplace, andregulating the production and management of food. Yet the central concern ofenvironmental law has been, for the last thirty years, the regulation ofpollution and materials or activities that cause pollution, as well as theprotection of wildlife and habitat.


Recent years have led to a greater concern for global risks to theenvironment, particularly in the ability of the oceans to sustain life and theeffects of human activity on the planet’s atmosphere and temperature.

AkRаM
08-12-2011, 04:52 AM
السلام عليكم ،

اتفضل يا دكتور ، ده القانون الجنائي [ مجموعة العدل ] :

http://www.mediafire.com/?zd5tqlq4ihmucbb

AkRаM
08-12-2011, 05:03 AM
السلام عليكم ،

اتفضل يا دكتور ، ده القانون الجنائي [ مجموعة العدل ] :

http://www.mediafire.com/?zd5tqlq4ihmucbb

د.محمد سادات
08-12-2011, 03:02 PM
السلام عليكم ،

اتفضل يا دكتور ، ده القانون الجنائي [ مجموعة العدل ] :

http://www.mediafire.com/?zd5tqlq4ihmucbb


محتويات الملف المضغوط لا تحتوي على ملف وورد الافضل انسخ الملخص وأضفه في مشاركة

AkRаM
09-12-2011, 02:26 AM
محتويات الملف المضغوط لا تحتوي على ملف وورد الافضل انسخ الملخص وأضفه في مشاركة



Criminal law: Is a body of rules that define conduct prohibited by the government that establishes punishment.


Scope and Sources :

Although American common law was derived from England . Each state has its own penal statutes defining both , major crimes, minor ones as well as petty offenses.

In many states, liberal use is made of such alternatives imprisonment as probation , fines , and conditional releases . In other states however jail sentences area common response to even such lesser crimes as petty larceny and simple drug possession .while criminal law is predominantly a state concern and the great majority of convictions are by the state courts, although the constitution grants congress no general legislative authority over penal law, criminal sanctions have been accepted as a proper way of securing obedience to federal law.

In addition to the role of the state in criminal law, the federal government is also active in many aspects of this field. The federal criminal law is seeks to provide for national investigations and prosecution of crimes with an interstate character, also the federal law defines national security offenses and protects federal officials and institutions.

Characteristics :
Until recently, the criminal codes of the various states were in confusion depending heavily on traditional common law formulas that were often unstated .Top help remedy the situation, the American law institute sponsored ( the model penal code ) and it was approved in 1962 after a decade of work .This new penal code wasn't expected to unify the criminal law in the united states because it was only a review of the subject. It influenced two-thirds of the states .The modern codes that followed the model penal code are organized in general and special parts.
The general part of these modern codes deals with principles of :
1-Liability and exculpation , such as requirements of culpability, causation, the effects of ignorance or mistake.
2- justification , such as : defense of ones self , defense of ones properity.
3-responsibility such as : ( effect of mental disease )

The special part contains definitions and gradations of specific crimes .
Crimes are functionally organized according to :
1-Interest sought to be protected.
2-The evils thought to be averted
Such as offenses against property or against public order and decency
Offenses involving danger to be the person

-The most important improvement accomplished by the model penal code is the treatment of the requires of culpability .

-Culpability is divided into 4 kinds : purpose, knowledge, recklessness, negligence .

These definitions are used consistently in formatting specific offenses.-
-Under the model penal code the person isn't ordinarily guilty of a crime unless : 1-he acted purposely, knowingly, recklessly, or negligently .
The code insists some culpability is required for commission of a crime.-
-Type of culpability may vary not only from crime to crime but from one element to another .
-These formulations have now replaced the traditional judicially developed formulations of the required guilty mind in about half the states .

حماقي
13-01-2012, 10:03 PM
لو سمحت يادكتور عندى استفسار اجابة السؤال الثاني في امتحان الانجلو ينفع تكون federal status