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  1. #1
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    ɡ . ɡ ɡ . ǡ ɡ . General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT ɺ ѡ .
    ɡ 1945 ( )[1] ݡ ʡ . ѡ 1945 ɡ ɡ ɡ .
    ɡ ѡ . ɡ ݡ 1946. ݡ 1947 ǡ Havana ǡ 1948. ɡ " " ɡ ɡ .
    ɡ ɡ : . ѡ ͡ Ǻ . 1950 ɡ ɺ . ɺ ɡ ߡ .
    ɡ ɡ ɡ . ɡ к ɡ .
    ʡ ǡ 105 90% ɺ 34 ɡ .
    () , ʡ ɡ ɡ ɡ . ݡ . :
    1. : () 1947 23 . ʡ 1948.
    2. : () 1949 13 . 500 .
    3. : () 1951 38 .
    4. : () 1956 26 .
    5. : ( )[2]. () 1960-1961 26 . .
    6. : ( )[3] () 1964 1967. . 62 .
    7. : ( ) () 1973 1979. .
    8. : () 1986 1994. 124 . ɡ (WTO) (GATT). ʡ ɺ ʡ ǡ ɡ . "" ǡ 1947 ɡ ʡ ɡ ѡ .
    15 1994 ԡ ȡ [4] ɡ ʡ ɡ " ". ϡ ɡ " " (WTO) ɡ "" 28 ɡ " ". ɡ ߡ ( ) ɡ .
    ɡ " " ɡ ɺ ɡ . ɡ ʡ ɡ . ɡ ɡ ɡ .
    . ɡ ɡ . . . . ʡ .
    ɡ : ɡ 10 13 1996 ɺ ݡ 1998 30 3 1999 ɡ 9 14 2001.



    [1] : .
    [2] : .
    [3] : 1964.
    [4] " " 117 .

    :

  2. #2
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    ɡ
    ɡ ɺ Ⱥ ѡ . ߡ ɡ ɡ . ߡ Gatt 1947 ݡ " " : ɡ ɺ ɺ ѡ .
    ʡ 1947 1994. ɡ " " ѡ ޡ (124 ) ɡ : ڡ ʡ ɡ ɡ ɺ ʡ ǡ 1947.
    ɡ " " ʡ ѡ ԡ ȡ 15 1994 ɡ ʡ .
    ɡ ǡ ݡ .


  3. #3
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    ""
    ʡ ʡ ɡ ɡ : ǡ ݡ ʡ ҡ . International Monetary Fund . ɡ ɡ . International Bank for Reconstruction and Development . ǡ ҡ . .
    : " "
    1944 ѡ " " . 44 ɡ ϡ : . ɡ ϡ ʡ .
    ѡ " " ɡ . 25 1945. ɡ ݡ ʡ . ǡ 1946. ɡ ɡ ɺ ɡ ѡ .
    : " " ""
    ȡ ɡ ɡ 1947 International Trade Organization (ITO) ɡ .
    ɡ ɡ ݡ 1946. ɡ ݡ ǡ 1947 ǡ ǡ 24 1948. ɡ " " " ". ӡ ɡ Ǻ ɡ . ɡ ѡ ɡ ɡ . ɡ ޡ ɡ . .
    " " 56 ɡ 21 1947 24 1948. ɡ ɡ ǡ . ѡ " " ɡ Ӻ ʡ 1950 ɺ . ɡ ϡ Ǻ 1947 ݡ " " Double-Track Approach.
    ѡ ɡ 23 ɡ ɡ " ". ɡ . ɡ ݡ . " " ɺ 20 1947 ݡ " " General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT 1948.
    ʡ . ɡ ɡ : ʡ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ ݡ . ɡ . 1995 ɡ .
    ߡ ʡ 1947 23 . 1994 117 ɡ ԡ ȡ .


  4. #4
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    ()

    : GATT ͡ ɡ " " General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ɡ ڡ " " " " " " " ". ɡ Ρ . ǡ ǡ 1947 23 . ǡ 117 ɡ 1994 WTO. : : 1. ɡ ɡ . 2. . 3. ɡ . 4. ʡ . 5. . 6. . 7. ɡ . ݡ : 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. ɡ . : : 1. Most Favoured Nation MFN ɡ . ɡ . ǡ . ɡ ǡ . 2. . ɡ ɡ ɡ : ϡ ϡ ʡ . ϡ ǡ ʡ ɺ ɡ ݡ Ǻ : ɡ ȡ ɡ . ɡ ɡ ɡ . 3. ϡ ǡ ʡ . Ϻ ɡ ʡ ( ) ɡ ɡ . ߡ 50% ɡ . ǡ ͡ ɡ . ߡ ɡ ɡ ɺ ɡ ʡ ɡ . : ʡ 1947 35 ɡ ɡ ɡ . ɡ ɡ ɡ ǡ 1965 ɡ ǡ ɡ . ȡ ǡ ڡ . : : . ɡ ɡ ɺ ǡ . : ɡ . . ʡ ɡ . "". ޡ ߡ . . . . : 12 ɡ 24 35. ɡ ɡ . ǡ . ʡ ǡ ǡ . : ȡ 1965 . : 36: Ǻ ɺ ɡ ǡ . 37: : 1. ɡ ɡ ɺ ɡ . 2. ʡ ڡ ɺ . 38: 36 ɡ ɡ ɺ ɡ . ɡ : Ѻ ء . Ǻ ǡ ɡ . ʡ 1947 1994 ɡ ɡ ʡ ǡ ɺ ɡ . : ɡ ǡ . ݡ ǡ . . 1. . . . . ɡ : ǡ ɺ ɡ Ϻ . ɡ . . ǡ ʡ ϡ ɡ . ɡ 1948. 2. . ʡ . ɡ . . . ǡ ʡ . 3. ǡ 400 . 70 . ʡ ɡ 30 . 4. : ɡ ɡ ɡ ǡ . ɡ : . . . ɡ . . . . . : United Nations Conference for Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 1. ɡ ɡ ɡ . ǡ ɡ ҡ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɺ ǡ 1964 " " () . ɡ ǡ 1962 ա ɡ 31 . ɡ " " . ɺ ɡ . ɡ 1961 1961 1970 ɡ ϡ 5%. ϡ 1964 ݺ ɡ ɡ ǡ 21 1947 24 1948 . ϡ Ϻ ʡ ɡ ں ɡ ɡ ɺ ȡ . . ɡ . ɡ ޡ ɺ ɡ ϡ . 2. . ʡ . ݡ ɡ ɡ . ɡ . : . . . ѡ ɡ Ѻ . . ɡ ߡ ɺ . : " " Multi- Fibre Arrangement ӡ 1974 1994 ʺ ɡ ʡ ں ӡ .


  5. #5
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    [align=center]
    "" [/align]

    () ɡ : () () ߡ ʡ ɡ ɡ .
    : 1947 1979
    1. () Geneva Round
    1947. 23 . . ɡ .
    2. () Annecy Round
    1949. 13 . .
    3. () Torquay Round
    1951. 38 ɡ . ʡ ǡ . .
    4. () Geneva Round
    1952 1956. 26 . .
    5. ( ) Geneva Dillon Round
    1960 1961. 26 . .
    6. ( ) Kennedy Round
    1964 1967. 62 . ǡ 25 1962 Gon Kennedy . ɡ ǡ ǡ ɺ ɡ ɡ ɡ 50% ʡ 30 1967. ǡ ʡ 1964 .
    . ɡ ɡ ɡ . ɡ ɡ .
    7. () Tokyo Round
    1973 1979. ɡ 90 . ǡ ȡ ɡ . " " ǡ ɡ 1973.
    . : ɡ ʺ ء . . ɡ ʡ 1980 :
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    : (1986-1993)
    1982. 1981 1983 . ɺ ɡ . ء ɡ 1982 . ߡ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɺ ǡ 1981.
    . " " 15 20 1986. 92 . ɡ ʡ ɡ ڡ .
    .
    ɺ ɡ . ʡ ɡ ǡ : ɡ ɡ ǡ . ɡ Ǻ ǡ ɡ .
    .
    ϡ ʡ ǡ . . 1990 . ݡ ͡ ɡ ɡ 15 1993 ɡ ɡ Ǻ ɡ .
    28 [1] ɺ ֡ 1986 ( ). 15 1994 117 ʡ ԡ Ⱥ 125 ɡ .
    ʡ ʡ ʡ ǡ : ɡ . :

    . ɡ 1994. : ɡ . 1995.
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    .
    ɺ ڡ ɡ . ɡ ǡ ɺ . .



    [1] . ݡ ɡ . ʡ ʡ .


  6. #6
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    (WTO)

    :
    ԡ " "World Trade Organization : WTO " ". 16 ɡ : ɡ ( ). ʡ 1995 ʡ ɡ 28 [1] ɺ .
    ǡ ɡ . ǡ ǡ ʡ ǡ .
    :
    :
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    : ɡ 1994 ɺ ɡ ʡ ɺ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ .
    :
    ɡ ɡ . ɡ ɡ " " ʡ ǡ ɡ .
    . ѡ . ɺ " 301" ɡ ɡ ɡ . . ɡ ɡ ɡ . ɡ ʡ . . ʡ . .
    ֡ ǡ . ѡ . *** ڡ ʡ ɡ .
    ɡ . ѡ ɡ .



    [1] . ǡ ǡ . 1994.
    [2] 1994 1947. 1947 38 . 1994 1947 ޡ ɡ 1995. .


  7. #7
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    ʡ 1947 ɡ ɡ " " " 1994" ʡ Ǻ ɡ .
    ʡ .


  8. #8
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    :
    ɡ 1947 ء . 1994 ʡ . ǡ ǡ :
    1. ɡ 6 ɡ 10 ɺ ɡ غ .
    2. ɡ С 36% ɡ 21% ɺ 24% ɡ 14% ɺ ɡ ɡ .
    3. ɡ ɡ 36% ɡ 24% ɺ С 1986 1988 . ʡ ɡ 4% ں ʡ 0.8% 8% .
    4. ʡ ɡ Tariff Quotas 5% . 3% 1986 1988 ɡ 5% .
    5. Domestic Supports ʡ ɡ 20% ( 1986-1988) . 5% .
    6. ʡ :
    . ɡ ɡ ɺ 10 ʡ ʡ 6 . ǡ .
    . Food Aid ʡ ʡ ɡ ɡ ""[1] Food and Agricultural Organization "FAO .
    :
    : ɡ ɡ ǡ ɡ : ɺ ɡ ɺ .
    1995. :
    1. ѡ Additives Contaminants Toxins ֡ . .
    2. ֡ . .
    3. ֡ . ɺ .
    4. ѡ .
    :
    1.
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    : ɡ 5 ʡ ǡ 2000 ǡ 1997 ɡ .
    7.
    ʡ ɡ . ɡ ʡ ɡ .
    :
    ӡ ɡ ɡ ʺ 10 ʡ 1994 :
    1. : ɡ 1995 ǡ 16% ʡ ӡ 1990.
    2. : ʡ 17% ʡ 1995 1998.
    3. : ɡ ӡ 18% 1998 2002. 4. : 2002 2005 ɺ ʡ ɡ ɡ . ӡ ɡ ʡ 1994 ǡ ɡ ϡ .
    ɡ ɡ ̡ ɡ :
    1. 1994 (2002-2005) ڡ Ǻ ɡ .
    2. ɡ ɡ 1994 ɡ .
    3. ɡ ɡ ɺ ɡ 1994 ǡ ɡ . .
    :
    1947 ɡ ӡ ɺ ɡ ɡ . ɡ ɡ ɡ . ʡ ɡ .
    ɡ ɡ ɡ . ǡ ʡ 1995. ɡ ɺ ɡ ɺ ǡ Ǻ : ˡ ϡ ɺ ɡ . ɡ 30% .



    [1] : .


  9. #9
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    () General Agreement on Trade in Services GATS : ߡ ɡ ɡ : ɡ ɡ ʺ . .
    ǡ :
    1. ɡ .
    2. .
    3. ǡ ǡ .
    4. .
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    :
    .
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    .
    :
    ɡ :
    1.
    ɡ ɡ . ɡ ʡ ѡ ɡ :
    . : ѡ ǡ ߡ ʡ ɡ ʡ 5 ʡ 10 .


  10. #10
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    Intellectual Property Rights . ʡ ɡ The World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO 1967 132 . ʡ ɡ ɺ : ɡ ݡ ʡ ϡ ӡ ɡ ݡ ݡ .
    ɡ ޡ ɡ ɡ . "" TRIPS Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. 1994 ɺ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ .
    TRIPS :
    1. .
    2. .
    3. ǡ .
    4. ǡ ɡ .
    :
    73 . :
    1. :
    . : .
    . ڡ ɡ .
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    . ǡ .
    2. ʡ ɡ ɺ ɡ ǡ .
    3. ɡ ɡ ʡ .
    4. 50 20 7 .
    5. ɡ TRIPS Ǻ 1996 ʡ 2000 ɡ 2006. ǡ ɡ ѡ ޡ 1995 ڡ ʡ : ʡ 2005. ɡ ʡ ( 65 66).
    6. ɡ ɡ ɡ ɺ . ɡ 63 TRIPS ʡ ʡ ͡ WIPO .
    7. : ɡ 67 : : .


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